ELEVATOR SAFETY SYSTEMS & CERTIFICATION
According to the 2014/33 / EU Elevator Regulation, which determines the basic health and safety requirements for elevators and elevator safety components that are required to be met, the market supply conditions for these products and the market surveillance and inspection principles, 6 products are defined as "Safety Components". These are as follows: Locking devices for the station doors, devices that prevent the cabin from falling or uncontrolled moving, overspeed limiting devices, buffers (energy-storing buffers, non-linear, anti-rotation and energy-consuming buffers), safety devices connected to the lifters of hydraulic power circuits when used as a fall-preventing device, electrical safety devices in the form of safety switches containing electronic components.
Safety devices consist of the following equipment in the elevator in order to prevent the following accidents: rupture, crushing, exceeding the travel limits of the elevator, elevator falling, impact, stuck, fire, electric shock, damage to materials, along with types of accidents that may be encountered as the consequences of wear and rust.
The conformity assessment methods of safety components are specified in article 17 of the regulation. How these methods are applied is explained within the annexes IV-A (Module B), VI (Module E), VII (Module H), IX (Module C2) of the Regulation. Manufacturers who prefer the option specified in these annexes, as specified in Article 17, certify their products and offer safety components to their users. The declaration of conformity including the information in Annex II-A of the Elevator Regulation (2014/33 / AB) must be submitted with the product, as well.
The elevator safety conditions are detailed in EN 81-20 and EN 81-50, the Basic Health and Safety rules, which is the annex number 1 of the 2014/33 / EU Elevator Regulation, and also in the standards harmonized according to these rules. The European standard EN 81-50 was adopted by CEN on 28 May 2014 and was revised on 1 December 2019, while the 2020 version entered into force. The content of this standard provides the design rules, calculations, examinations and tests of elevator components and the requirements specified in other EN 81 standard series. Therefore, this standard can only be used in conjunction with standards for specific types of elevators, such as elevators for carrying people or cargo (EN 81-20).
The harmonized standards with "European Norm" characteristics, while having "EN" added as a prefix, are the standards that are created on product safety, taking the risks that may occur in the product into account, instead of the product definition. Therefore, ensuring the safety mentioned in the "EN" Standards is deemed to be the acceptance of the product as safe, together with the assumption that the product meets the basic safety rules specified in the regulation, accordingly.
Section 5 of the EN 81-50 standard, covering the design rules, calculations, examinations and tests of elevator components specified in the standards used in the design of elevator machines to be used for carrying people, carrying people & cargo, carrying solely cargo and other similar types of carriage, explains what the technical file of safety components will cover, which tests and test types are required to be considered safe, along with the technical file and the information that should be in the certificate to be created for the products that have successfully passed the test process.
The safety rules for the construction and installation of elevators specified in EN 81-50 - Elevator Regulations, are essential points for an elevator to be deemed safe and allowed to be manufactured.
- Type analyses of safety components
The safety component is subjected to a test process to verify the compliance with the requirements stipulated by the EN 81-50 standard as long as it is involved in the construction and operation of the device. The mechanical, electrical and electronic parts of the assembly should be checked to determine their suitability and their effectiveness over time due to wear and tear of the assembly, in particular. Where the safety component is required to meet certain requirements (waterproof and dustproof or explosive atmosphere construction), additional examinations and / or tests should be carried out according to the suitable criteria.
Within the scope of the purposes of this standard, a test laboratory is considered to have undertaken both the test implementation and the certification process as a notified body. In certain cases, the notified body and the test laboratory may be separate for the type examination certificate process. Under such circumstances, the administrative action may differ from those specified in this standard.
According to the Elevator Regulation, Type examination is the process of determining the conformity of a safety component to the basic safety rules of the regulation following the physical examination, design examination and experimental examination in accordance with the harmonized standards. According to the EN 81-50 standard, type examinations are categorized as follows: type examination of the landing and car door locking device; Type examination of safety gear with sudden braking; type examination of speed regulators; type examination of buffers; Type examination of safety circuits containing electronic components and / or programmable electronic systems (PESSRAL); Type examination of the protection devices against excessive acceleration of the car moving upwards; type examination for uncontrolled car movement protection device; Type examination of pipe rupture valve / one-way flow limiting valve.
In addition, this standard clearly specifies the way to be followed in subjects such as: calculation of guide rails, calculation of drive capability, evaluation of safety coefficient in suspension ropes for electric elevators; Calculations of pistons, cylinders, rigid pipes and fittings, pendulum impact tests.
The conformity of the elevator safety components to the type that is based on product quality assurance is determined based on the following criteria: to be manufactured and monitored by the notified body in accordance with the type described in the EU type examination document; to provide the applicable requirements of the relevant supplement; to meet the requirements of this Regulation, when the elevator safety component is correctly placed in the elevator. This forms a part of the conformity assessment process assessed in line with the manufacturer's quality system.
The manufacturer shall carry out the approved quality system and the tests required by the standard for the final inspection of the elevator safety component and is subject to the surveillance as stipulated by the standard. The manufacturer shall apply to the notified body determined by him oriented at the elevator safety component for the evaluation of the quality system.
CE Mark is a health and safety mark applied within the framework of the "New Approach" established by the European Union in 1985 in order to ensure the free movement of goods. It is intended to use a uniform EU mark indicating compliance with EU directives, instead of the different conformity marks used throughout the EU.
What shows that the product affixed on the CE Mark is healthy and safe for humans, animals and the environment, is the conformity mark of the European Union's New Approach Directives, It is not possible for a product that falls within the scope of one or more of the New Approach Directives (of which number is upto 25 today) to enter the EU market without carrying the CE Mark, accordingly. In proving the conformity with the New Approach Directives, it is of great importance that the manufacturers produce in accordance with the harmonized standards related to the directives. Although it is not mandatory to comply with the standards, the assumption that the production is carried out in accordance with the directives - in case of production in accordance with the standards - encourages the manufacturer to comply with the standards.
The CE mark is not a symbol of quality. Created with the objective to ensure the free movement of goods between European Union member countries, it is a mark which means that the product on which the mark is attached meets the basic health and safety requirements of the relevant regulation.
A product bearing the CE mark ensures that the consumer is aware of its compliance with certain standards, quality and safety standards. In brief, it shows that a product bearing the CE mark is reliable. Within the scope of harmonization with the European Union, these standards are also applied in our country and CE standards have been determined as an obligation in our country in line with legal regulations, while also deemed as required for the sectors that produce within the scope of the New Approach Regulations.
The CE Mark paves the way for the products to be marketed in the European Union member and candidate countries. For this reason, industrialists are obliged to put this mark on the product in order to market their products in the EU.
It symbolizes that the product complies with technical regulations. Although the CE mark is not a trust mark and a warranty certificate, it indicates that the product safety process has kicked-off. The absence of the CE mark indicates that the product is outside of the basic safety requirements. Therefore, it prevents the supply of products in the markets. In that, the product is considered as unsafe.
It provides competition with leading manufacturers in the sectoral aspect. With the CE mark, the free movement of the product in the European market is ensured. With this certificate, the relevant legal justifications are presented, thus preventing the possible contradictions, accordingly.
Therefore, CE Mark is recognized as an "ENTRANCE CARD" in countries within the scope of the European Union.
The Manufacturers of Elevator Safety Components, as defined in Annex 3 of the Elevator Regulation, must affix the CE mark on the products to be placed on the market. In order to be entitled to attach this mark, they must complete the necessary certification processes according to the Conformity Assessment methods (Module B or Module H) defined in the annexes of the Regulation and select the appropriate one from the surveillance modules (Module C2, Module E or Module H), which are specified in the same annexes, thus completing the certification process, accordingly.